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Table 10 External Costs, by Scenarios BAU vs. METS – International Shipping, 2025

From: Economic evaluation of the environmental impact of shipping from the perspective of CO2 emissions

International Shipping
2025 BAU (Without Reduction) METS - Implemented Outcome FC (Mt) MAC TAC/FC ($/t) MSC (BAU) TSC/FC ($/t) MSC (METS) TSC/FC ($/t)
Scenarios GR-RR-P TSC ($M) CO2 - Emitted (Mt) TAC ($M) CO2 -Abetment (Mt) TD ($M) CO2 (Mt)     
High-High-High $71,520 2,809 $51,018 −2,003 $20,502 805 897 $56.86 $79.71 $22.85
High-Best-Best $42,078 2,809 $24,112 −1,609 $17,966 1,199 897 $26.87 $46.89 $20.02
High-Low-High $71,520 2,809 $17,859 −701 $53,661 2,107 897 $19.90 $79.71 $59.80
High-Low-Low $20,452 2,809 $5,107 −701 $15,345 2,107 897 $5.69 $22.79 $17.10
Best-High-High $60,002 2,356 $42,980 −1,688 $17,022 668 753 $57.09 $79.71 $22.61
Best-Best-Best $35,301 2,356 $20,334 −1,357 $14,968 999 753 $27.01 $46.89 $19.88
Best-Low-High $60,002 2,356 $15,087 −592 $44,915 1,764 753 $20.04 $79.71 $59.66
Best-Low-Low $17,158 2,356 $4,314 −592 $12,844 1,764 753 $5.73 $22.79 $17.06
Low-High-High $44,135 1,733 $31,923 −1,254 $12,212 480 554 $57.65 $79.71 $22.05
Low-Best-Best $25,966 1,733 $15,137 −1,010 $10,829 723 554 $27.34 $46.89 $19.56
Low-Low-High $44,135 1,733 $11,277 −443 $32,858 1,290 554 $20.37 $79.71 $59.34
Low-Low-Low $12,621 1,733 $3,225 −443 $9,396 1,290 554 $5.82 $22.79 $16.97