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Table 2 Questionnaire survey - summary of survey results

From: The procurement of food on board liner ships: the role of the international labor organization

Survey question Average score (Range of score) Comment
Policy implications
ILO Food and Catering (Ships’ Crews) Convention and the Certification of Ships’ Cooks Convention maintain all up-to-date standards of existing international maritime labour Conventions and recommendations 3.36 (2–5) Agree
Seafarers have access to good quality food and drinking water provided regulated hygienic conditions 4.00 (3–5) Agree
The key information (i.e., ILO Regulations and the Code) is public access so that the maritime stakeholders are able to obtain it anywhere 3.91 (3–5) Agree
The seafarers’ food and catering is deemed as more a problem to solve instead of an opportunity to innovate. 3.18 (2–5) Agree
There is misalignment when implementing and promulgating the seafarers’ food and catering instruments to different global regions. 3.27 (2–5) Agree
The attitude of ship operators to seafarers’ food is actively participated in improving seafarer working condition. 3.91 (2–5) Agree
The poor health conditions lead to adversely effect on seafarers’ performance and behaviour. 4.45 (3–5) Agree
ILO Regulation and Code could not encourage all countries to follow or adopt. 2.82 (2–4) Disagree
Flag of convenience intensified seafarers working under unacceptable conditions. 2.36 (1–3) Disagree
Seafarers could perceive significant improvement on working conditions under seafarer’s trade union. 3.73 (3–5) Agree
Value chain analysis
Technology adds value to food supply chain operations. 3.73 (2–5) Agree
Outbound logistics (i.e., distribution) is critical to food supply operations. 3.82 (3–5) Agree
Good service of food supplier is critical to the satisfactory of seafarer. 4.18 (3–5) Agree
Procurement procedures are critical to food supply chains. 4.09 (3–5) Agree
Qualified personnel are critical to operate and manage food supply chain. 4.09 (3–5) Agree
Human resources department provides training to staff on food quality and safety 3.73 (3–5) Agree
  1. In this study, the 5-scale Likert-style score scale was used in the survey questionnaire (i.e., 1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neutral; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree)