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Table 3 Gas emission reduction resulting from operating with different emission control systems compared to the use of LNG

From: Investment decisions under uncertainty on LNG-powered vessels for environmental compliance

Abatement technology/measure Emission reduction (%)
SOx NOx PM CO2
Basic internal engine modifications for 2 strokes, slow speed only 0 −20 0 0
Advanced internal engine modifications 0 −30 0 0
Direct water injection 0 −50 0 0
Humid air motors 0 −70 0 0
Exhaust gas recirculation + scrubbing −93 −35 −63 0
Selective catalytic reduction (2.7% S residual oil fuel) 0 −90 0 0
Sea water scrubbing − 75 0 −25 0
Fuel switching (from 2.7% S to 1.5% S IFO) −44 0 −18 0
Fuel switching (from 2.7% > 1.5% S IFO) − 81 0 −20 0
Low S marine diesel (from 0.5% to > 0.1% S) −80 0 0 0
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) −90 −80 −100 −20
  1. Source: Burel et al. (2013)