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Table 4 Ship specifications, procs and cons of three emission abatement measures

From: Investment decisions under uncertainty on LNG-powered vessels for environmental compliance

Options A B C
Oil powered ship with SCR Oil powered ship with scrubber + SCR LNG powered ship with SCR
Main engines and propulsion
 Engine type Diesel Diesel Dual Fuel Diesel
 Propulsion system Direct Direct Direct
Auxiliary engine
 Engine type Diesel Diesel Dual Fuel Gas
 Fuel (in ECA) LSFO (Low Sulphur Fuel Oil) (0.1% S) IFO LNG, LSFO (0.1% S)
 Off ECA LSFO (0.5% S)   LNG
 SCR Installed Installed Installed
 Scrubber Not Installed Not
Procs -No or little modifications and investment needed -Well known and tested -Lower fuel costs -Fuel available -Potential CO2 reductiona -Much lower maintenance
Cons -Higher fuel costs -Fuel availability uncertain -Wear and tear -Higher OPEX, fuel consumption and maintenance costs -Ship design and stability challenges -Sludge management: need to create a logistics chain and adapt port infrastructure -More space needed for the gas system on board -Bunkering points and associated logistics to be created -Safety aspects increase complexity of the supply chain, ship design and operations -Skilled and trained crew
  1. ameans the contribution of LNG as the fuel to CO2 reduction remains a topic of debate