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Table 2 Vessel enlargement and the effect on seaport competitiveness

From: Exploring seaport - dry ports dyadic integration to meet the increase in container vessels size

Factor of vessel enlargement Effect on seaport competitiveness Reference
Port infrastructure Draft restrictions in seaports such as low water depth in access channels and berths to accommodate deep-draft ships Imai et al. 2006
Normal quay cranes are not effective with gigantic container ships. Tran and Haasis 2015
Storage capacity is not sufficient for massive volume of containers. Jeevan et al. 2018a
Operational bottlenecks and port inefficiency cause of unavoidable and insufficient infra- and supra-structures Notteboom et al. 2017
Issue of vessel breadth and channel passing which may be a significant problem for two large vessels. Prokopowicz and Berg 2016
Operational efficiency The container mega-ship raises issues concerning container-handling operational needs at ports. Imai et al. 2006
Economies of scale have driven towards increased vessel size (above 18,000 TEU). However, at the same time, it has imposed unprecedented operational constraints in ports. Parola et al. 2016
Low capability of faster handling for quick turnaround time required in the selected mega-hub ports. Imai et al. 2006
The productivity of container yard will be affected. Tran and Haasis 2015
The call of mega ships possibly causes rush and off-peak hours in ports. It is expected that the ports will face congestion due to a surge of internal and external traffic. Tran and Haasis 2015
Hinterland network Need for high synchronisation with hinterlands through specialised high-capacity transport corridors serviced by rail or barges, often including dry ports. Roso and Lumsden 2010
Inland transportation system must be well connected to deliver cargo on time as well as shorten dwell time of containers in port. Tran and Haasis 2015
Service quality The current container terminal will unable to meet the larger container demand in the distant future because of high utilization rates and the long stay times and wait times for most vessels. Meng et al. 2017
Uniform IT platforms for all participants in the port logistics process are necessary to ensure capacities to serve VLCSs. Prokopowicz and Berg 2016
Unavoidable an insufficient ‘info-structure’ (e.g., Port Community Systems) Notteboom et al. 2017