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Table 1 Shipping Digital Solutions

From: Shipping digitalization management: conceptualization, typology and antecedents

Digitalization Areas

Digital Technologies-Solutions

Ship Operations-Autonomous Functions

IoT, analytics, AI, 5G

Technical and nautical operations

Various levels of Autonomy for Ship Operations: Navigation, Berthing, Collision Avoidance

Shipping Commercial and Business Management Operations

IoT, analytics, AI

Asset optimization, fleet planning, service planning

Trade and Logistics Functions

Digital Platforms

IoT, analytics, blockchain

Cargo monitoring, Paperless Trade, Supply Chains Synchronization

Internet of Ships Platforms &

Internet of Sea Services Platforms

Analytics, AI

Smart Cargo Booking

Open Data Hub for shipping companies, shipbuilders, equipment manufacturers, IT companies, weather information companies, and digital solution providers.