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Table 5 Distribution of responses by type of bonding and various factors

From: The bond and retention of Chinese seafarers for international shipping companies: a survey report

Factor Item Detached Neutral Bonded
Mobility: shipping company One only 8.1 14.6 77.2
2–3 times 17.4 23.3 59.3
> 3 times 8.0 18.0 74.0
Mobility: crewing agent One only 8.8 16.2 75.0
2–3 times 14.3 27.6 58.2
> 3 times 12.9 6.5 80.6
Employment status SOE employee 13.7 23.5 62.7
Agent seafarer 6.8 16.1 77.1
Free seaman 16.4 20.9 62.7
Education University 16.9 11.9 71.2
Vocational 6.8 18.9 74.3
M school 16.8 25.7 57.4
Multination experience Yes 10.6 14.8 74.6
No 12.5 26.8 60.7
Culture of ship company Chinese 7.9 18.1 74.0
Non-Chinese 17.3 21.8 60.9
Total   11.9 19.7 68.4
  1. Note: bold is to highlight differences between bonded and other groups